Interrogation record: Day 1

ENGLISH TRANSLATION

 

NOTE: THE [BLUE TEXT] HAS BEEN ADDED TO THE ORIGINAL TRANSCRIPT

 

Apart from occasional notations only the answers/statements by Elser are recorded.

 

 

 

COPY

 

Berlin, November 19, 1939.

 

It appears [demonstrates]

 

Elser, Johann Georg,

 

born 4:1:03 Hermarigen / Württemberg, Oberamt Heidenheim, single, carpenter, RD.?, Most recently resident

of München, Turlenstrasse 94/11 with Lehmann, son of the timber merchant Ludwig and Maria Elser, born Müller,

Konigsbronn near Heidenheim resident, and states:

 

A) To the person

 

[Hermaringen] 

 

I was born in Hermaringen on January 4, 1903, as the son of Maria Müller, who was at that time a resident of her parents, who held a farm and an orchard. A year later, my mother married the child's father Ludwig Elser. By this conclusion I was legitimated. My father, Ludwig Elser, lived in Königsbronn. He had his own estate there and also earned his livelihood through timbering and agricultural work.

 

[Königsbronn (1904-1925)]

 

After her marriage, my mother lived with her husband in Königsbronn, I myself also moved there with my mother. In Königsbronn I was living until 15.3.1925 without interruption. I spent all my youth in my parents' house. For my maternal grandparents in Hermaringen, I was perhaps visiting a year with my parents. To my grandparents on the paternal side, who lived in Königsbronn, I often came on Sundays. I was allowed to accompany my parents to such visits. In the age of 4 years I visited my grandparents in Königsbronn alone.

 

[Brothers and sisters]

 

The next child of my parents, my sister Friederike, was born in 1904 (the exact date I do not know). Whether my parents were already married or were imminent, I do not know. My other siblings, 4 in total, were born later. About three years after me, so perhaps 1906 (I do not know exactly), my sister Marie was born. Then came my sister Anna, perhaps 1908 (?). My brother Leonhard, who was 10 years younger than I, was born in 1913. In their youthful years, until they later went abroad, my siblings were always at home.

 

[Parents]

 

Not every day, but often my father came home very late. As far as I know, he was often in the inn. My mother told us that she was often beaten by her father. However, I have not seen it. Whether my father has hit the mother with his hand, or with a chair, a lantern, or anything else, I do not know. It sometimes happened that we were taken out of the bed by the father, when he came home at night, to something like, for example, boots. But I can not remember, and I do not think he'd beaten us at night. From my father I only got beats at all, and this often when I had done something. My mother, too, has occasionally, and not often, been beaten. We always wake up at night when my father came home in the frenzy at night. When he entered the house he always cursed. It was not just that my father was only drunk on Saturdays, it also happened every week, quite differently. As far as I know, he only drank beer and wine. Brandy, I think little. That my father had once promised my mother not to drink, I can not remember to have heard.

 

My mother has never left. Nor is it known to me that she has consumed alcohol.

I do not know from my grandparents whether they have drunk.

 

I can remember that I as a little boy slept in a small room next to my parents' bedroom. As far as my memory goes, that is, until early youth, I can not recall having slept in a bed with someone of my siblings. I think I always had my own bed alone.

My father has been a little active in agriculture, he first led wood, and later began his own wood trade. The main burden of agriculture lay on my mother. I and my siblings had to help very early in the barn, in the field and in the house. I, as the oldest, was always the child-minder for my younger siblings. In agriculture, my mother served as a temporary servant. So I can remember that we had a servant for about a year, and later a maid. I believe the maid was busy with my parents for a long time. Whether the maid was still in the house, when I went to school, I know no more.

 

[Volksschule in Königsbronn (1910 - 1917)]

 

At the age of seven I went to school in Königsbronn. I spent my whole school there too. In the first time we had a teacher named Bohmler, who is still a solid man in my memory, that is, I do not think he had drunk or treated us unfairly. Blows were, as far as I believe, always only when it was necessary. I have a total of 7 classes. The boys and girls were always mixed. Later the teachers changed more often. From the first to the third class we had Böhmler, then came a teacher Hermann for the fourth and fifth class. In these classes also taught a teacher sarcastic, who may have written something else. In the sixth and seventh classes the headmaster taught Kreuter. I was a mediocre student, that is, I had good grades in drawing, writing, and arithmetic. I was less good in dictation, essay, and other subjects. In religion I was satisfying. I did not get more punches than the others and only when I had not learned my homework properly. Like Böhmler, the other teachers were just, with the exception of Hermann, to whom I can remember that he had just beaten the entire class between times. I liked to go to school when I was taught how to calculate, draw or write. Otherwise, I was not enthusiastic about the school visit. As far as I can remember, I never skipped the school. I was missing only when I was ill. In the fourth and fifth grades, I have received a school book for good drawing and, in the same time, once for good reckoning, 10 pfennigs, as a commendation from the teacher. As much as I remember, I had to sit in the sixth or seventh class once, since I had not learned my religious duties. The punishment was assigned to me by the priest who gave the religious instruction. It was Pfarrer Hauser, who taught religion throughout my school year.

 

As far as I can remember, my parents did not care very much about the testimony I got from school. I can not remember that they asked me if I had good or bad testimonies. At home, they always helped me. The fact that I had to help with the agricultural work at home helped me make learning quite difficult. At school we had very good and also very bad school children. One class consisted of an average of 30 children. The teachers were very anxious to teach us the necessary knowledge. In the subjects where my achievements were weak, I probably learned at home. On the other hand, I did not try to improve the performance through my own diligence.

 

My good achievements in writing, drawing and drawing are due to the great interest which I have often shown as a child for these subjects.

 

[Agricultural aid for parents in Königsbronn (spring - autumn 1917)]

 

In the spring of 1917 I came from the Volksschule. By the autumn of 1917 I had helped my father with the woodwork and my mother in agriculture. I helped with the loading and unloading of the wood. In agriculture I did mainly fieldwork, and I had to feed the cattle in the barn. For this work I was not paid, also I received from my parents no pocket money. I only received my food.

Just as I do, my siblings have never been sitting in school. They were, in my opinion, mediocre in their achievements. They also have 7 classes of the Volksschule in Königsbronn. I can not remember whether my siblings, like myself, had special favorite subjects.

If I am asked whether we have been treated well or badly at home during our youth, we have always been given enough food, etc., I can assert that we have never suffered, with the exception of the war. The house where we lived belonged to my parents. Debt was, however, on this house, and also on the new house, which my father has now bought after selling the first house, are debts. The debts are still about 8,000 RM. The first house where my parents lived after their marriage had, as far as I know, bought my grandfather to his son, my father.

 

During the war it was a bit short at home. Despite our agriculture, we were mostly hungry at the end of a year, because we had to give up everything and only had to keep a certain quantity, which for a year had to be sufficient for life for the family. During the first war, as long as I do not remember, my father had gone to Ulm with our horses and the car for service in fortifications. When this work was completed, he came home and was no longer used in the army or otherwise during the whole war. Since my return from the military my father has not left Königsbronn anymore. He did not go to my memory.

 

My mother was only once, it should have been in 1910, a week away from Königsbronn. She had left Koenigsbronn after being beaten by my father again. I do not remember the reason for this. She spent the week with her children in Hermaringen with her parents. A sister of my father ordered my mother to return to Königsbronn. Otherwise I do not know that my mother left Königsbronn, with the exception of visits she had paid to her parents.

 

[Sister Friederike]

 

In about 1926, my sister Friederike married the installer Willi Kraft from Schnaitheim near Heidenheim. As far as I know, Kraft is a welder today. Prior to her marriage, Friederike worked in Königsbronn once, perhaps twice, in the cigar factory there. Besides that, she was a house girl in a foreign country. Whether this was before or after her work in the factory and where she was employed everywhere as a house girl, I do not know exactly, since I left the parents house in 1925. I can only remember that she was once in Reutlingen. Today, Friederike lives with her husband and three children in Schnaitheim, where she is a little distracted after her marriage, after she first lived in Königsbronn. I do not know whether my sister lives happily and the children are healthy. When I last visited them about 2 or 3 years ago, I did not notice anything special. Kraft works in a large factory and is well paid. With my brother-in-law's strength, which I had known before his marriage with my sister, I was on good terms. It was not until a few years after her marriage that my sister's relationship with her husband grew. A cupboard that we had bought together in the parental home, my sister Friederike and I, was the cause of a small conflict. Since then I have not visited Friederike and her husband. There are no other causes for the current bad ratio.

 

[Sister Maria]

 

My sister Maria was at home after her release from the school, which I suspect more than I could remember. But I know that she was away from home for a long time and worked as a maid, and possibly also in agriculture, but probably not in a factory. It may be that it was Maria, who once worked in a factory in Herbrechtingen. It may also be that I am confusing them with my other sister, Friederike. About 2 or 3 years ago my sister Maria married to Stuttgart. Her husband, Karl Hirth, is employed as a butcher in a larger hotel business, in the "Württemberger Hof". Maria lives in Stuttgart with her husband and a child at Lerchenstrasse 52 in an apartment with 2 rooms and a kitchen. What Hirth deserves, I do not know. My sister is still going to the factory, I believe in Bleyle. In the apartment it is very clean and I believe that the two happily live with each other. With Hirth, whom I had already met before the occasion of his visits to my parents' house, I was always on good terms. My sister, since she was married, has visited three or four times. The first time they brought the dowry for their home from home to Stuttgart by car, and I accompanied them. At that time I stayed 2 or 3 days at Lerchenstraße 52. I also slept there, either with the marriage beds or on the divan. I do not know exactly this today. Twice, however, I have slept in the visits to the marriage bed. - Maria's child was 7 years old at the time of marriage. Hirth is the real father of the child Franz. - At the time of my first stay, I helped my sister to set up the apartment and set up the furniture. I also dyed the grandfather clock after the color of this watch did not match the furniture. At the clock I also repaired a gong stick, which had broken off during the transport to Stuttgart. I had to have this rod welded to the iron plate. At the clock, I also had to use the work, attach the glasstapes and set the clock. I had the welding work done with a locksmith or a Flaschner near the apartment of my sister, the name of the locksmith is no longer memorable. I have never been to this locksmith any more. After doing this work in the apartment and setting up the apartment, I left my sister's apartment and returned to Koenigsbronn. In Stuttgart, I did not stay any longer. There I just went to see a business, also near my sister's apartment, to have lunch. In other places I did not come in Stuttgart. I was not in touch with other people in Stuttgart at the time. It may even be that the mentioned business visit with my sister took place only on a later visit to Stuttgart. With the locksmith I mentioned, II was merely discussing the work to be done by him. I have not spoken to the locksmith about any other things, craftsmanship, or such.

 

About one year later, it was in spring or autumn, the exact time I can no longer specify, I have my sister without any occasion in Stuttgart in the same apartment. I drove from Königsbronn by train to Stuttgart. As far as I remember, I have not informed my sister of this visit before. In any case, I was not at all in correspondence with her. I must add that on a Saturday or Sunday from Königsbronn I drove first to Esslingen, where my former housekeeper from Königsbronn, Else Härlen, with whom I had a relationship, had a visit, in Esslingen one night with this woman in a business Near the railway station (name no longer remembered), from the train station exit diagonally to the right, I might have found it again, to continue on the other day to Stuttgart by train. (The housewife, at that time, drew my attention to the above-mentioned economy, whether or not it is known to her by name, I do not know.) I recall now that it was a Monday when I visited my sister in Stuttgart. I arrived at Stuttgart about eight o'clock, and walked to my sister's apartment on Lerchenstrasse no. 52, where I met my brother-in-law and my nephew. My sister was not at home then, according to my brother-in-law, she was already at the factory at Bleyle. I spent this day together with my brother-in-law. I do not think we left the apartment before the late afternoon. It may have been during this visit, however, that after lunch, Hirth and I, we took a walk in a small park with a brook. Certainly, however, I know now that I have picked up my sister Maria in the factory (Bleyle) on this day after the ceremony. I slept on the occasion of this visit to my sister's apartment and not in Stuttgart at all. On the same day I went back to Königsbronn by train. The real reason for my visit to Stuttgart, namely, the meeting with the Härlen in Esslingen, I have concealed from my brother-in-law and my sister. I do not think they know anything about my relationship with this woman, but I do not. I can certainly remember that on that day in Stuttgart, I had not met strangers, that is, someone but my sister, brother-in-law and nephew. No other people have come to my brother-in-law's apartment. I can not recall what we have spoken of; In any case, it will have been a question of purely family matters. As far as I can remember, I walked on the train to Konigsbronn on foot and alone. I did not have any luggage with me. This was my second visit to my sister.

 

[Stuttgart, 6-7 November 1939]

 

For my third visit, which took place at the beginning of November 1939, I signed up from Munich at the end of October by a letter from my sister. This letter had, as far as I can remember, the following words:

"Dear sister, Karl and Franzle, how are you, I will probably pay you a visit in the beginning of November, please write to me if you need the following items: suits, shirts, socks, sweaters, camera, 2 pairs of shoes, my carpenter's craft , Umbrella, 3 hats Please write me immediately if you have use for it.

 

After a few days, I received from my sister, under the Munich address I gave, Georg Elser at Lehmann,

 

Without further news to my sister, I was then on Monday, the 6.11.1939, with the train with all my remaining luggage, as far as I had not already sent, to Stuttgart, where I arrived in the afternoon. I was not picked up at the station because my relatives did not know when I came. With my handbag (the rest of the luggage was left as a passenger), I went to the "Württemberger Hof" across the station to visit my brother-in-law there. A hotel attendant told me that his workplace was a few blocks down the street. As I have said, I found my brother-in-law busy with relief work, since he had obviously little to do as a butcher. My brother-in-law accompanied me back to the station, helped me to pick up my luggage, called a servant with a tricycle, and then went back to his workplace. I drove with the driver to his car at Lerchenstrasse, where I met my sister at home.

 

I admit that I have been asked by both my sister and my brother-in-law during this short stay in Stuttgart and getting together what I was going to do. I explained that I had to go "over the fence" (border). The further question about why I have always answered only that I said "I have to." After this short answer, neither sister nor brother-in-law asked any further questions about the reason for my intended trip abroad. It may be possible that I have explained to this: "It can not be changed." The true reason of my intended flight I have neither informed or suggested to my sister or my brother-in-law. There were no more questions to me either. They were undoubtedly aware that I would not reveal the reason for my intended foreign journey.

 

I spent the big wooden trunk with my brother-in-law, who had come home in the meantime, into the kitchen of my sister's apartment. The travel case and a package of pictures had already been taken to the cellar by my sister and me in the apartment and the wooden box and a package with dirty laundry. In the wooden box, there were screws, nails, tools, with which I worked and tinkered at home. In the big wooden box were my suits, clean underwear, two half-finished watch cases, which I wanted to sell after completion, and a cardboard box containing 3 or 4 movements. These works were intended for table clocks. Two works were broken due to cracked springs. These works were either produced by Rothmund, Uhrengehäusefabrikation, Meersburg, or from Riesterer, clock factory in Villingen. As a matter of fact, I received it from the Rothmund Company in January 1932 as a compensation for the work I had done, since, due to bankruptcy or settlement, I could not pay the salary of RM 176. I was working as a carpenter at Rothmund. I opened the suitcase, the packages and the boxes in the presence of my sister and my brother-in-law. The objects were taken into custody by both. I have shown my sister the double floor in the large wooden box. I merely screwed this double back on and off again without giving any further explanation. Whether my sister has asked a question about this, I can no longer remember. I can not say with certainty whether I have shown this double ground to my brother-in-law. I gave all my belongings in the suitcases, boxes and packages to my sister and my brother-in-law. I did not leave my sister's apartment that evening. The apartment was not visited this evening. My sister was only in the stairwell with a man unknown to me, when she went back from the cellar to the apartment. I went ahead of my sister's time, and passed by this man. According to the voice, this man would have been the husband of my sister Anna, who is married in Zuffenhausen. The surname does not occur to me now, the first name is Fritz. The contents of the conversation of the two is not known to me, after I have not understood the conversation. On my later question my sister told me that this man was my brother-in-law Fritz. I inquired whether I was being spoken about, which my sister also confirmed. He asked her if I was her brother. More was not said about this man. I can not speak well of this Fritz because he is his wife, with whom I am hostile to my mother because of a conflict.

 

In the evening I sat with my sister, my brother-in-law, and the little nephew in the living-room. We first talked about family matters. E.g. We have talked about how our father is. I said in the context that I had planned to go back to Königsbronn again to see my father again. I also wanted to go to Schnaitheim to welcome the family Schmauder and to see their daughter Maria again. I had lived with the family Schmauder before I went to Munich, and I had a relationship with my daughter Maria. From this I taught my sister and brother-in-law. Also in the evening I was again asked, if it was to be that I go abroad. I said again, "It is no longer to change." When asked, "Where," I replied that I wanted to go to Switzerland. More I said not that evening. I did not say any more about the reasons. As far as I can remember, my sister did not ask me expressly whether I would go abroad for my Alimentahlahlungen. I assumed, however, that my sister would suspect this. I can not remember any further details of the conversation that day. I also do not believe that more was spoken. I went to bed before my relatives. I also stood up after them. I slept this night in one of the marriage beds. My sister and brother-in-law lay next to me, I did not see that, but I suspect this because I did not see a bed on the divan. When I got up the next morning, my brother-in-law had already gone to work. On the bed, however, he had said good-bye to me before he left. My sister did not go to the factory that day. I do not know if she was reported ill or whether she is no longer in the business. I do not think I asked my sister why she stayed at home. I had breakfast with my sister and also took lunch with her at home. I do not know whether my nephew Franz also ate with us. At about 4 o'clock this day, 7.11.1939, I took the train to Munich. I took the tram to the station by myself. Before leaving I visited my brother-in-law at his workplace. I said good-bye only briefly. Apart from general wishes like "Stay healthy" and "Write also once" nothing was spoken.

 

The decision to go to Munich, I had already taken a few days before. But as I said, I wanted to go to Konigsbronn and Schnaitheim. But as I had only got up between eight and nine o'clock on this day, I would not have come to Munich any more if I had gone to Konigsbronn and Schnaitheim before. I did not realize this according to the timetable, but I appreciated it. I do not know exactly whether it was on the eve or the morning of that day when I told my sister that I had to go to Munich again.

 

Note:

In spite of his energetic intentions and the untruthfulness of his assertions, E. remains unaware of whether his sister has said something about this change of program or what she might have said.

 

From this day until today, I have seen my sister and brother-in-law for the last time.

As far as my relations with my sister Maria and my brother-in-law, Karl Hirth.

 

[Sister Anna]

 

My sister Anna is also married, with a locksmith named Fritz, the family name does not occur to me at the moment, and is living in Zuffenhausen. I am not in a constant relationship with her or with her husband. The last time I saw Anna in the autumn of last year when she visited my parents in Königsbronn.

 

[Brother Leonhard]

 

My brother Leonhard lives in Königsbronn in the parental home, for which he is registered as co-owner. He is a professional carpenter and was most recently employed in the Königsbronn metallurgical works. He is married and has 1 child. Until this spring, I stood up well with him. Since then bad, because he has in my opinion with his wife in the house pushed into the house.

 

Note:

After completing the interrogation on the family relations, it is continued chronologically, starting with the apprenticeship period.

Elser states:

 

[Friends Eugen Rau, Hans Scheerer]

 

During the time between the school leaving and the beginning of the apprenticeship, I took the two-way traffic with two of my schoolmates. They are

Eugen Rau,

Which I have seen more often in the meantime, but with whom I am no longer a close friend, as well

Hans Scheerer,

Who later emigrated to America and has been lost for many years.

 

[Eisendreherlehre at the Hüttenwerk in Königsbronn (1917 - March 1919)]

 

During my work in the paternal trade and in domestic agriculture, I decided to become an ice-cutter. My father, however, wanted me to stay at home, to support him in his profession and agriculture. When I told him that I wanted to go to the doctrine of an ice-cutter, he did not hit me and made no great noise, but tried to dissuade me. But as my mother supported me, I made my will.

On the idea of becoming an ice-cutter, I came to the conclusion that my already mentioned school mate, Eugene Rau, came to an apprenticeship as soon as he graduated from school.It was not that he as described to me this profession particularly nice or I would have brought workpieces that he had worked back home, but only the fact that my friend was iron turner, moved me, without that I knew precisely why to take also this profession. The profession of my father and agriculture always told me to have. In agriculture, I have less of joy in this work, as only in the desire to help my mother worked. Bypassing with horses was me not very much and besides, I had witnessed several horses were entered, which is also the desire to transit craft spoiled me.

Any activity bastelnde said more to me. Even as a boy I had made fretwork and other small handicrafts. Professional guidance in my tinkering by an older craftsmen, such as the blacksmith or locksmith of the place, I have not had time.

 

I had after school the desire to become a lathe operator. After I had enforced me at home, I had, as far as I can remember, looking my apprenticeship itself. In steelworks Königsbronn I in 1917 the opportunity to be set as iron turner apprentice in autumn. (My friend Rau worked in the same factory.) In that work I was engaged in Eisendreherei the masters Britsch and shopping. In this section of the steel mill, the Eisendreherei, were a total of about 30-40 workers, to 4-5 apprentices, employed in two shifts. After some time I watched that first my father that my health did not get the work done in this workshop well. I think me determined to remember is that it was first my father, who stated that I could not stand. I had been ill during this time several times. What I missed exactly, however, I do not remember. I had fever and headache anyway. At the doctor's I was several times. I understand that I went then personally to the factory office and declared there that I want to stop with this work, because I can not tolerate. I think I had to continue working even 8 or 14 days and then dropped out. Overall, I was so in the autumn of 1917 to the spring of 1919 (beginning of March) employed there.

 

How much I've earned a week during my apprenticeship, I do not know. Anyway, in the first year slightly less than in the rest of my broken doctrine.

 

I remember that I, so everything I received money, had to deliver at home all payday. I was allowed to keep nothing and received on Sundays no pocket money from my father. Only if I could buy me something, I have received the full amount of the price respectively. During this training period I have gained no new friends. I still wrong with Rau and Scheerer. Scheerer was then locksmith apprentice at the company. Voith in Heidenheim.

 

In the first quarter of my employment in steelworks I had to do for the older Dreher auxiliary works, wear as tools for erecting leave, Material zoom create etc. Spontaneous I could do no work. After the first quarter, I came to a small lathe, where I was allowed to work independently under the supervision of the master. I had to cut threads, rotating bolt, grinding anvil and other smaller shooting defecate. This work I carried out in the context of total thickening rather than actual apprentice work. After some time I came to a large lathe, because the mine to easier especially for the anvil loops of execution was.

In the future I have now made some difficult filming. Any assembly activities I have not performed. If I am asked specifically if I could have perhaps created on the occasion of this apprenticeship at home a small collection of tools, so I have to deny this. All tools that I bought some to me even then, I have acquired by purchase.

 

During this apprenticeship as a lathe operator, I naturally also at home still tinkered. Ua I built a rabbit hutch in that time and me with the self-making of a small gasoline engine, which I had bought myself a manual booklet, busy.

 

Simultaneously with my entry into the teaching in steelworks Königsbronn where I except my schoolmate Rau, who, as I said, there was an apprentice, had no particular friend, I also joined the trade school Heidenheim. As far as I remember, was a day teaching week. In the class of iron turner we were there about 30 students. The lessons were of commercial schoolteacher precious. I counted in this class of the good students. Of the three distributed after the first year I received a Commendations.

The smelter Königsbronn was the only work at the place where I could learn the training as a lathe operator.

 

[Carpenter Robert Sapper in Königsbronn (March 1919 - Spring 1922)]

 

After I, as already indicated, for health reasons did not feel able to pursue the profession of iron turner, I made the decision to learn the carpentry. Near my parents' home, the master carpenter Robert Sapper and Fritz Weber carpenter workshops were held, where I had to repeatedly pick sawdust and shavings during my iron turner apprenticeship on behalf of my parents. Sawdust and the short shavings were used in his parents' property as litter in the stable and long shavings for lighting a fire. In the pick of sawdust and wood shavings - it always did so after closing - I always watched the two masters in their work in the workshops and in my interest was awakened at carpentry. My parents were in agreement that I entered Robert Sapper on 15 March 1919 as a carpenter's apprentice. Robert Sapper had employed a journeyman, this was a certain Stäudle from Schnaitheim. Furthermore, where he worked as an apprentice Otto Britsch from Königsbronn. Later came a certain Hermann Bauder as an apprentice. With Bauder I have befriended over time. It is a distant relative of mine. After Sapper was known as a capable carpenter, I stepped into the teaching in this and not in Weber. Other reasons were for this not before. On March 15, 1922, the apprenticeship was completed at Sapper. In the early days of my teaching I had simple boxes, stool, stools and the like, which required no special skills, customize. I had to cut, plane and assembling the wood. At this work I had great pleasure and great interest. The work has been more difficult and at the end of my apprenticeship I was able to make large and heavy pieces of furniture itself. Sapper also operated a joinery, there I was only incidentally concerned. I learned there lay belt ground running Doorway, hitting doors, use window frames, shutters fit and install Cladding on stairwells. But this work gave me too little, after they were connected with so much dirt and grime. Special interest I had only at the furniture carpentry. In the first year of training I received weekly 1 - RM, in the second year of training 2 - paid RM - RM and the third year of training a week 3 - or 4. In part I used this money to buy clothes and purchase of carpentry and locksmith tools, such as iron drill, iron filing, carpenter planer etc. This tool I took only home in use, to where the necessary repairs themselves can. I also made at home and the items that were needed there, z. B. remodeling a basement as living space.

 

[Carpenter journeyman Robert Sapper in Königsbronn (spring of 1922 to January 1923)]

 

In the spring of 1922 I put at the trade school in Heidenheim for Best journeyman exam. My parents and my master were very pleased with this success. Then I was still active until January 1923 when Sapper as a carpenter apprentice, where I mostly worked in the furniture carpentry. Even as a journeyman I worked here and there in the joinery. The weekly earnings no longer remember me. The weekly earnings I used also for the purchase of clothing, tools and joinery material that I needed at home, also I always carried a certain amount of my mother from that required him to financial management. With other professional colleagues as the designated Bauder I have not befriended me up to this point. Bauder was, like me, also mainly in the furniture maker, he has a year later passed the final examination, he was also, like me, a hobbyist, he has always tried to build electric and petrol motors at home. What successes he achieved this, I do not know.

 

[Carpenter apprentice at furniture factory Paul Rieder in Aalen (Jan 1923 - Autumn 1923)]

 

Around December 1922 I resigned at the Cabinetmaker Sapper after I had chances at the furniture factory Riederer in Aalen enter as a carpenter apprentice. This termination had Sapper at that time not accepted because he needed me urgently. After Sapper had a recent cancellation is not accepted for the same reason in early 1923, I'm late January 1923 or early February stayed away at Sapper and joined the company in Aalen Riederer as a carpenter apprentice. The basic change in employment was that the earnings at the firm Riederer was significantly higher than in Sapper. At the company Riederer I was in work until the autumn 1923rd There I had to make in the main kitchen equipment and bedroom furniture. The apartment I had maintained during this time in Königsbronn with my parents. I always drove the car to work and back. Any friends I have not closed at the firm Riederer with professional comrades. In free time I have at home also continues to carry out the repair jobs. For tinkering I had as I recall no more time. With Bauder I did not come together at this time. I had only connecting only with my old school friend Rau.

 

[The Aalener company "Riederer" was in reality no longer existing furniture factory Paul Rieder . She was in Long Street, today Stuttgarter Straße in the area of City Hotel Antik Aalen.]

 

[Agricultural assistant with parents (Fall 1923 - Summer 1924)]

 

After the fall of 1923 had no value due to inflation the money, I have voluntarily canceled properly at the firm Riederer and taken part in the housework. I helped my mother as before in the field work and was my father, who exercised the timber trade in the meantime, assistance in forestry work, including rod cleaning, sawing, cutting out, etc... A salary or pocket money, I received neither my mother nor my father. I had at home and lodging. The free time I whiled away the time with my friend Rau, the home had a gramophone and who taught me dancing. Crafts I have little done at this time.

 

[Carpenter journeyman with Matthias Müller in Heidenheim (Summer 1924 - January / February 1925)]

 

Until the summer of 1924 I worked in the manner indicated at home. About this time I asked for at the company Matthias Müller, Möbelschreinerei in Heidenheim to work. I was set there two or three days later as a carpenter apprentice. This company Müller was known to me from my school days (trade school). This company I had noticed through their large stock and remembered. For this reason I have sent my application there to work. Owner of the company was the master carpenter Matthias Müller. There were there still 4 or 5 journeymen and apprentices employed 1 or 2. There were there throughout manufactured home furnishings. I had to make in the main kitchen and closets. Any workers were not assigned to me at the moment. I worked independently. The apartment I then kept at my parents in Königsbronn. I went as far as I remember, constantly train to my workplace and back to Königsbronn. Any friends I have not closed during my tenure at the company Müller. The company owner was always satisfied with my work. He had not any complaints. In January or February 1925 I quit there again. I had a desire to go into exile to train me in my career further. Müller made me reluctant to go, the reason is unknown to me.

 

[Agricultural assistant with parents (Feb 1925)]

 

After my retirement from the company Müller-Heidenheim I was some time back home, where I pressed myself as usual, that I helped with precisely where it was necessary. For I had already a job in a foreign country in view, and although I was supposed to start on 03/15/1925 at the Cabinetmaker Wachter in Bernried in Tettnang a job.

 

[Bernried and Manzell / fathoms (March-August 1925)]

[Carpenter apprentice at Wachter in Bernried (March-May 1925)]

 

For this work I came by a carpenter named Karl (?) Fischer from Oberkochen, one of my home about 6 km from the village. These fishermen I met "The Deer" in Oberkochen occasion occasional walks, which I then took my friend Rau, in the economy. At the request of fishermen, which I had said that I wanted to strangers, I wrote to the master carpenter Wachter, was engaged once before at the fishermen to work. I received a written commitment to the 03/15/1925. At this time, I took the train to Tettnang, walked about 2 hours to Bernried and joined in my place. I was there the only journeyman and worked with the Master alone together. I lived in the house of the master in a chamber under the roof. I was there occupied with furniture productions. The work there therefore told me to not quite because Wachter in his workshop out of a self-made circular saw had no equipment and you as the planing all had to perform by hand. I also liked the location not. There are only a few scattered houses, so I felt much too lonely. I therefore remained only about 6 weeks and retired after termination of my site May 1925 again. Master Wachter made me not like to go, but I got so armed with him no. During my short stay in Bernried I have no friends or acquaintances closer closed. As a reward I got there in addition to free room and board might 8.- to 12.- RM a week.

 

[Carpenter apprentice at Dornier in Manzell (May-August 1925)]

 

When I left the place, I had no job prospects. I wandered about Langenargen Lake Constance along to Friedrichshafen and Manzell. From Bernried to Friedrichshafen I was about 1 week walking on the road. I stayed in economies and asked on the way variously vain for work. On this journey, I was always alone. Begging or peddling I have neither then nor later. The tavern bills I paid on my savings. Through the labor office in Friedrichshafen, on the I inquired also, I learned that the Dornier works in Manzell looking for a skilled carpenter. I took the job and was employed in the construction of propellers. At the master's name of the department, I can not remember exactly, I think his name was Wapra or something like that. In this department employed about 15-20 people. Since I was in the immediate vicinity of the Tourist season work for a room, I have in Kluftern, a town at the railway line between Manzell and Markdorf, rented me. I drove every day by rail between Manzell and Kluftern back and forth. In Kluftern I have in an economy whose names I can not remember, lived. In this point I have been very well paid by piecework and overtime, in any case more than ever before. In the workshop I learned an employee named Leo (?) Dannecker know a little more. Dannecker lived in Markdorf or in an area close at Markdorf place; It was like I was a trained carpenter, and somewhat younger than me. My Sunday walks I made but not with him, but always along alone either the lake or in the city of Friedrichshafen. My acquaintance with Dannecker was not political and not particularly friendly nature. We were together almost exclusively in the operation. In itself, I liked it very good at Dornier. But it was Dannecker, who persuaded me to change jobs. Dannecker played in his spare clarinet and insisted to Constance, to join a club where music can. Eventually he persuaded me to the watch factory in Konstanz to write together with him to work. We received a commitment announced our existing working relationship and drove one day together with the ship from Friedrichshafen to Konstanz . I believe that this was my first boat trip on Lake Constance.

 

[Konstanz (August 1925 - Mai 1932)]

[Carpenter apprentice at watch factory in Konstanz (August 1925 - 1929)]

 

The company was called at my entrance, as far as I recall, originally "Metzner" later "Schuckmann u. Comp." and was later renamed "Oberrheinische watch industry". The company has repeatedly changed hands. Owner of the company was originally a me no closer known Metzner, then a Schuckmann, later a fox and finally a rooster. For more details and in particular about the time I can not do today. The first time I was at this company in 1926 or 1927 on my work after this time was bankrupt. Owner of the company was still Metzner. There were at that time never all work. I was about half a year of work and looked around during the time repeats success at various companies in Konstanz to work. The individual companies I can not specify today. The apartment I had maintained in Konstanz, Konstanz I had not left. As in 1928, the new owner of the company died named Fuchs, turn the work was stopped at the company, and I was again about half a year without work. Also during that time I could not find work despite repeated demands in Konstanz. I lived at the time of the unemployment benefits and of my savings. From strangers I received no support. Also, I have strange people not addressed in this respect.

 

[Carpenter apprentice at Schönholzer in Bottighofen / Switzerland (1929)]

 

Approximately in 1929 the work was stopped again at this company and dismiss all workers. As far as I remember, the dismissal was due to a fire at the company. I went then to Bottighofen / Switzerland, the consistency is about 8-10 km south. There I found work in the carpentry Schönholzer. I went therefore there after I have recently been looking in Konstanz me vain to work. Who referred me to the company Schönholzer in Bottighofen, I now no longer remember; it may be possible that I became aware of it through a newspaper advertisement. I was about half a year in this company as a carpenter apprentice in work. The owner of this company also is Schönholzer, the first name is not remembered me. I had to make there home furnishings. There I had an hourly wage of 1 for 30, which was 1.04 RM. In this company, only the owner and his son worked. My apartment in Konstanz I have maintained during this period. I went back every day by bike in the morning and evening after Bottighofen Konstanz. A particular reason why I did not take apartment in Bottighofen, I can not say. An interest to take up residence in Switzerland, I had not. More people than Schönholzer family I had not met in Bottighofen.

 

[Carpenter apprentice at Rothmund in Meersburg (late 1929 / early 1930 - Spring 1932)]

 

In late 1929 or early 1930 told me a woman in Konstanz, whose name I instantaneously is not recalled, with that a former partner of the watch factory in Konstanz called Rothmund in Meersburg manufactures watch case and that seeking these workers. The woman was also formerly employed in the watch factory in Konstanz and living near the factory. In this message I went to this Rothmund Meersburg, where I asked to work. After a few days I was able to start working. As far as I can remember, I have terminated properly in Bottighofen at Schönholzer.

 

In Konstanz I first lived Inselgasse 15 at Braster and then successively in the following other apartments: Gebhard Rd.? Ms. Stadel (or Stadler), then Fürstenbergstraße 1 at Niedermann.

 

[Mathilde Niedermann, Hilda Lang]

 

With my former acquaintances Leo Dannecker I had soon lost the closer contact during my time Constance. I had there one after another made the acquaintance of several young girls, so my time was filled. At some with whom I went longer, I can not remember specifically. Their names were: Mathilde Niedermann, then in the Gebhard Rd.? living in Konstanz, Hilda Long, Hussenstraße (?) in Konstanz. The Niedermann was a waitress and the long a milliner. An additional names of female acquaintances during this time I can not remember. New friends I did not win.

 

The fire in the watch factory, which I already mentioned briefly, was then picked up by the police. Later I heard that the former owner of Hahn is said to have set the fire himself. Whether he was sentenced, I do not know.

The bike that I used to my trips between Konstanz and Bottighofen, I bought brand new in Constance around the year 1927th It cost about 140.- RM. The money for this purpose I had saved me. This bike I owned until 1938, when I sold it in November or December last year to a colleague in Heidenheim perhaps 16.- RM. Perhaps this sale took place but also in January 1939th

 

 

 

Aborted to 21:30

sgd. Kappler, sgd. Schmidt, sgd. Seibold.

Krim. commissioners.

 

 

 

INTERROGATION: DAY 2.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

verhoer-s000-1

The 203 page interrogation record of testimony by Georg Elser before a special commision investigating the Munich bombing was unearthed in German national archives in 1964. The five day hearing was held in the Reich Security Main Office, Berlin, between November 19 and 23, 1939. Page 1 is below:

 

 

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